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How do Trees Really lift Water to their Leaves?

8 years 8 months ago #588 by Andrew
Trees the key to beating salinity
DAFF04/175M 18 August 2004

The Australian Government's Natural Heritage Trust will invest $2.9 million over two years to develop commercial environmental forestry (CEF) that will address salinity.

Speaking at a regional forest investment workshop in Morwell, Australian Forestry and Conservation Minister Senator Ian Macdonald said the CEF program developed farm forestry systems that reduced salinity while delivering commercial returns.

"It is about linking the commercial to the environmental to develop long-term agricultural business options for farmers affected by salinity," Senator Macdonald said.

"When adopted, CEF will also benefit the broader community by not only reducing salinity in the Murray system, but also by protecting water quality and biodiversity. The CEF project supports private and public outcomes for regional catchment management groups and private investors to deliver benefits."

The CEF project began in 2003, and is a major collaboration between CSIRO and the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Other partners include the National Association of Forest Industries, the Murray Darling Basin Commission and the Victorian Department of Primary Industries.

The project partners will invest more than $4 million in 2004-05, and plan further investment in 2005-06.

The project is focussed initially on a pilot in the Goulburn Broken Catchment where salinity is a major problem, and the Catchment Management Authority (CMA) has targeted forestry as a potential solution. The CMA is an active partner in the project and is holding community forums to involve landholders.

The project has identified those areas in the catchment where forestry will reduce salinity without stressing river flows. These areas are typically found where rainfall and growth rates are lower than in traditional plantation areas. CSIRO is undertaking research to reduce investor risk by identifying species with commercial potential for these lower rainfall areas and developing growth predictions for them.

The project is also quantifying the other environmental benefits of farm forestry of interest to regional NRM groups and governments. These include biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration and erosion control.

"This new funding of $2.9 million comes on the back of initial seed funding of $550,000 provided last year," Senator Macdonald said.

Response of orchard 'Washington Navel' orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, to saline irrigation water. II. Flowering, fruit set and fruit growth.

H Howie and J Lloyd

Flowering, fruit set and fruit growth of 'Washington Navel' orange fruit was monitored on 24-year-old Citrus sinensis trees on Sweet orange rootstocks that had been irrigated with either 5 or 20 mol m-3 NaCl for 5 years preceding measurements.Trees irrigated with high salinity water had reduced flowering intensities and lower rates of fruit set. This resulted in final fruit numbers for trees irrigated with 20 mol m-3 being 38% those of trees irrigated with 5 mol m-3 NaCl. Final fruit numbers were quantitatively related to canopy leaf area for both salinity treatments.Despite little difference between trees in terms of leaf area/fruit number ratio, slower rates of fruit growth were initially observed on high salinity trees. This effect was not apparent during the latter stages of fruit development. Consequently, fruit on trees irrigated with 20 mol m-3 NaCl grew to the same size as fruit on trees irrigated with 5 mol m-3 NaCl, but achieved this size at a later date. Measurements of Brix/acid ratios showed that fruit on high salinity trees reached maturity standards 25 days after fruit on low salinity trees.Unimpaired growth of fruit on high salinity trees during summer and autumn occurred, despite appreciable leaf abscission, suggesting that reserve carbohydrate was utilized for growth during this period. Twigs on high salinity trees had much reduced starch content at the time of floral differentiation in winter. Twig starch content and extent of floral differentiation varied in a similar way when examined as a function of leaf abscission. This suggests that reduced flowering and fruit set in salinized citrus trees is due to low levels of reserve starch, most of which has been utilized to support fruit growth in the absence of carbohydrate production during summer and autumn.

Keywords: Oranges, irrigation, water, salinity, responses, fruits, set, development, flowers, initiation, Carbohydrates, metabolism, Polysaccharides, Flowering, growth, Maturation, subtropical fruits, citrus fruits, fruit crops, Citrus, Australia, Rutaceae, Sapindales, dicotyledons, angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, Australasia, Oceania, 2180,

Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40(2) 371 - 380

Salinity and drought stress effects on foliar ion concentration, water relations, and photosynthetic characteristics of orchard citrus.

JP Syvertsen, J Lloyd and PE Kriedemann

Effects of salinity and drought stress on foliar ion concentration, water relations and net gas exchange were evaluated in mature Valencia orange trees (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. (Tri) or sweet orange (C. sinensis, Swt) rootstocks at Dareton on the Murray River in New South Wales. Trees had been irrigated with river water which averaged 4 mol m-3 chloride (Cl-) or with river water plus NaCl to produce 10, 14 or 20 mol m-3 Cl- during the previous 3 years. Chloride concentrations in leaves of trees on Tri were significantly higher than those on Swt rootstock. Foliar sodium (Na+) and Cl- concentrations increased and potassium (K+) concentrations decreased as leaves aged, especially under irrigation with 20 mol m-3 Cl-. Leaf osmotic potential was reduced as leaves matured and also by high salinity so that reductions in leaf water potential were offset. Mature leaves had a lower stomatal conductances and higher water use efficiency than young leaves. After 2 months of withholding irrigation water, leaves of low salinity trees on Tri rootstock had higher rates of net gas exchange than those on Swt rootstock, indicating rootstock-affected drought tolerance. Previous treatment with 20 mol m-3 Cl- lowered leaf area index of all trees by more than 50%, and resulted in greater reserves of soil moisture under partially defoliated trees after the drought treatment. This was reflected in more rapid evening recovery of leaf water potential and less severe reductions in net gas exchange after drought treatment in high salinity trees on Swt rootstock. High salinity plus drought stress increased Na+ content of leaves on Swt, but not on Tri rootstocks. Drought stress had no additive effect, with high salinity on osmotic potential of mature leaves. Thus, the salinity-induced reduction in leaf area appeared to be independent of the Cl- exclusion capability of the rootstock and decreased the effects of subsequent drought stress on leaf water relations and net gas exchange.

Keywords: Oranges, salinity, responses, rootstock scion



Salinity damage is caused by the accumulation of toxic levels of salts (sodium and/or chloride) in the tree. This usually arises from the use of saline irrigation water or the presence of a saline watertable within or just below the rootzone.


The severity of symptoms increases with the concentration of salts accumulated in the soil and/or trees. Loss of tree vigour is a major symptom of salinity. Trees affected by salinity generally show water stress before they should, ie when soil moisture content appears adequate. This is particularly the case where salt has accumulated in the soil.
Marginal leaf burn, particularly towards the tips, is characteristic of salinity. Leaves tend to be cupped. Premature drop of a proportion of the older leaves may occur along shoots.
When cut off, the branches of salt affected trees have discoloured heartwood.
In severe cases salinity causes tree death.


Leaf nutrient analysis is a useful means of detecting the development of salinity problems. Annual leaf analysis will reveal the trend in leaf sodium and chloride levels. If levels are increasing the cause of this should be investigated. Bear in mind that higher levels can be expected in low rainfall seasons and in years of higher than normal river salinities.
The water used for irrigation in the Riverland is relatively saline, normally in the range 400 to 800 EC. With adequate irrigation management and good drainage, these levels of water salinity need not substantially affect stone and pome fruit production.
Leaching of salts through the soil profile is a necessary part of irrigation in the Riverland to prevent salt accumulation in the rootzone.
For further information refer to the irrigation section.

Knowledge of the problem?
Observations of increasing land and stream salinity were first reported many years ago. In 1907 Government Analyst E. A. Mann suspected that there was a relationship between clearing and the development of land salinity.

In 1902, 8,000 ha of trees in the Mundaring Weir catchment were ringbarked to increase run-off. Salinity in the weir increased, and in 1909 it was recommended that regrowth be encouraged and replanting undertaken. This was done and salinity levels fell.

Increasing salinity in railway dams used to supply water to steam engines was also observed. A railway engineer, W. E. Wood, collated and analysed the early data and with the publication of his paper in 1924 the relationship between clearing and increased land and stream salinity was unequivocally established.

Dave, this does appear to fit with the saline regulation of the tubular experiment, where the saline sollution isadded to the rising tube side bottle.

But more to the point, it was because of my interest in irrigating deserts and reforesting them that I considered how the trees were dealing with salts in the first place. I have contacted the Australian Government and several experts on desertification many times over the years, but failed to touch a nerve. Now trees are being recognised as valuable desalination plants.

This is good news for me. I have been shouting this message at them since 1993. "Plant Trees to reduce salinity in the ground water" I am curently shouting a similar message to the people in Thailand, who are experiencing one of the worst droughts in their History.

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

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8 years 8 months ago #589 by Andrew
Mangrove trees, which grow in salt water, so something opposite. They take in salty water and deposit salt crystals on the surface of their leaves. Surely, the difference in ion concentration is a crucial factor in both situations.

R A Beldin,
Improbable Statistician

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8 years 8 months ago #590 by Andrew
@ R.A. Beldin

Mangrove trees are able to restrict the amount of salt they take in and the salts found on the leaves are a result of evaporation, re-concentrating the salts. The difference in ion concentrations is indeed a crucial factor in all situations. Wherever a concentration takes place due to evaporation there is an obvious alteration of density in the fluids that are shedding water. There has to be! Denser solutes at the evaporation points will inevitably be acted upon by gravity and there goes that for every action there is a reaction again. Gravity will pull the denser solution down and the negative tension behind the falling sap will draw up less concentrated solution as a return flow, much the same as a flow and return system in a central heating boiler, which uses heat to alter density on the rising side and the cooled water becomes denser so provides the return flow. Having fitted this type of boiler it contributed to the discovery. Flow and return hot water supply drawings. www.gasman.fsbusiness.co.uk/system_basics.htm www.ecoplusonline.com/images/Fig5_70.gif

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8 years 8 months ago #591 by Andrew
I am interested to learn if there is more evidence supporting Andrew's view that it is best to sleep on a slight decline. Since 1998 is their further emperical evidence in support of the claim? Have their been any tests undertaken in controlled circumstances?

In his 1998 article he explains that "Cattle and sheep, when given a choice all sleep facing uphill". To me this reads as if they prefer to sleep on an incline.

Hospital beds in order to encourage sluggish circulation and avoid thrombosis are designed to raise the feet above, not lower them below, head level. I assume the benefits of this have been endorced by hundreds of years of practical observation.

Andrew makes some big claims for sleeping on a decline of 5 deg. As the benefits claimed are considerable I would appreciate an update, so I can decide if I should copy it.


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8 years 8 months ago #592 by Andrew
Hi Robbyn

I have been trying to enlist the cooperation of the medical profession since 1994, lots of broken promises, despite having convinced quite a few people within the health service that this would save them an awful amount of money and time, not to mention saving patients limbs and lives.

I am currently trying to get a simple study with varicose veins oedema and leg ulcer underway at the local prison. The Health Officer there is very interested and we have the support of a vascular surgeon from Torbay Hospital and Professor’s Urnst and Curnow, also invoved with local health service and universities.

The case histories are from my own attempts to demonstrate just how effective this simple cost free therapy is.

My telephone no is +44 1803524117 should you wish to hear this from the horses mouth, or have any questions which require answers.

Sincerely Andrew K Fletcher

Below is a thread where I have been asking on here for some help to conduct a study that will be accepted by the medical profession.

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8 years 8 months ago #593 by Andrew
It seems there are two things to investigate:

1. The pumping action of a tree. Is it gravity aided?
I notice that you were invited to put together a page length paper for a peer reviewed journal. I would suggest you follow that advice.

2. The medical benefits of sleeping on 5deg declined bed
I have read the testimonials you kindly sent to me. They are remarkable and the results astounding. I can understand you wanting to pursue this discovery. It may be that the gravity theory does not account for the results. I am not qualified to comment. I know that many discovers of medical breakthroughs were broken by the system demanding explanations rather than results. I do not understand why bed manufactures are not happy to finance a study.


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8 years 8 months ago #594 by Andrew
Its about time they started to give u some constructive comments dad! I've been watching these threads for a while now :D
I have watched and heard and seen thousands of people from doctors, professors, scientists to journalists and lamers on the net try to rip into my dad for years and try to take down his ideas and accomplishments and have all failed miserably .... he will get recognised in the end ya know!!! just keep motoring on dad!!! .. why is it so easy to spread bad news and it is so difficult to bring a ray of light to the world?


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8 years 8 months ago #595 by Andrew
It looks to me like the answer would lie in the active transport of cells... and that if the tree is completely dead when the water moves upward, something is pushing it. perhaps it is the process of death and decomposition that pushes the water upward into the leaves, if, for instance, the circulatory pathways harden and move water upward as they dry up. i admit, I only started researching tree circulation today, and except, of course, for photosynthesis, i have almost no knowledge of the anatomy of a tree, but i do know a significant amount about physiology and this entire topic seems to me like way too much energy put into something that could be found out with a little research. although i admit, i haven't read the entire topic either.

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8 years 8 months ago - 8 years 8 months ago #596 by Andrew

The Experiment at Brixham Overgang Cliffs where water flowed vertical up a single 6 mm bore tubing using 10 mils of salt solution, demonstrating that a tiny amount of denser solution can lift effortlessly many thousands of times it’s own volume in water without any artificial aids, demonstrating clearly a non living physical cause of bulk flow in plants trees, animals and humans. The 10 metre limit for lifting water clearly needs some serious revision.

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Last edit: 8 years 8 months ago by Andrew.

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