40 dollar inclined bed frame ibt 1Inclined Bed Therapy:  Sleeping Inclined To Restore and Support Your Health For Free.  Fascinating Science, Discovery, History and Medical Research In Circulation And Posture, by Andrew K Fletcher.  Read the Success Stories.  Check the Forum.

How do Trees Really lift Water to their Leaves?

More
8 years 11 months ago #543 by Andrew
Reply #77 on: 04/05/2005 10:52:42 »
Dave, when I came to you In Brixham, I asked if you would be in a position to repeat my experiments. After visiting your website, I believe you are in a better position to do this than anyone else, with your connections at Chaos-science.
I Would like to ask, if you would consider taking this experiment to your next demonstration, and I would be willing, (wrong word) Delighted to come and offer assistance, and provide your team with the tubing, etc.
How do you feel about this?
Respectfully Andrew K Fletcher

www.chaosscience.org.uk/pub/public_html/...=Events&menu=Events_
From your site:
Our events normally take the form of a room full of experiments each with at least one demonstrator, getting people involved and explaining what is happening.
We also run and help with various other events in Cambridge and will go into local schools

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago #544 by Andrew
Dave:

I would want to understand what was going on really well before taking it anywhere near kids, boiling lots of water is a hassle and we don't often have anywhere which is over 10m high in the venues...

I would be interested to see it though.

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago #545 by Andrew
A spiral staicase is a great place to conduct the experiment and many schools have several floors, presenting ideal locations.

The boiling water is not a problem as this can be done at home, taking the cool pre-boiled water along for the experiment. I even take along the coil of tubing, pre-filled with the boiled water and the saline solution in the centre, as this saves time at the School. But more water can be taken along for repeating the experiments.

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago - 8 years 11 months ago #546 by Andrew

Reply #80 on: 09/05/2005 18:26:47 »
I'm going to move this thread to the 'cells' forum shortly, so look out for it there...

TNS


Why are you moving the thread? As this is a physics discussion, Can you please enlighten me why you believe it belongs on the cells forum?

Andrew

Dave:
Although most of the discussion has been on physics, the question is actally biology, and a lot of the evidence is microscopic.


I beg to differ David, None of my experimental models are microscopic. And yes, most of the discussion is on physics. The movement of fluids, fluid dynamics.

A Decisive Step: 1889–1924
The crucial period for our current views on the mechanism of water transport in plants were the years between 1889 and 1896. As a cornerstone we have a monumental book, Eduard Strasburger´s Über den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahnen in den Pflanzen (On construction and function of the conduits in plants) written in 1891. Strasburger, who is mostly remembered for his outstanding contributions to plant cytology, gave an encyclopedic compilation of old and recent work done on pathways and mechanisms of water transport in the plant body. As Sir Francis Darwin stated in 1896: "It is difficult to praise too highly this great effort of Strasburger´s".

Strasburger himself was an adherent of the school of physics and provided some strikingly efficient demonstrations of water being lifted to considerable heights without any involvement of living cells (Figure 1). He showed that woody stems with their lower end immersed in concentrated solutions of copper sulfate or picric acid and severed by a cut made below the surface of the liquid, will readily suck the solution up. Immediately upon contact, the poisonous fluid kills all living cells in its way, but the copper or the acid arrive in the transpiring leaves and kill them as well. The uptake of the solution and the loss of water from the dead leaves may continue for several weeks, and new solutions of a different color may be lifted in a dead stem.

Dave: We have been through this before, but this is true of the xylem and water will be drawn up a dead tree, but not of the Phloem which is a complex bi-directional sugar and mineral transport system, not the downwards only pipe that is needed for your theories.


There goes your precious leaf generated tension theory. All of the cells were killed by the acid / copper sulphate solution. All of them! That means the phloem and the xylem. Yet the flow to the leaves remained functional for 3 weeks. Explain that using the cohesion theory!

There goes any connection whatsoever with living plant cells.

All we are left with is some dead inanimate tubular conduits and pits, “sounds like my tubular experiment more than some wonderful mystical suction from dead leaves”? Add some salts at the top of the tree from the decay / breakdown of the leaves, which will alone generate flow according to my theory.

I know, I have repeated the experiments with liquidised leaves, tea, milk, urine, etc etc. anything denser than water will initiate this flow and the sooner scientists accept that this flow will occur wherever there is a denser solution above a less dense solution the better.

But to hide this thread from the view of people who are interested in physics and fluid dynamics is nothing short of censorship at best!

The truth of the matter is that this new paradigm looks a damned site more likely than anything that has gone before it! And it has already generated a lot of interest.

Are you afraid that it is becoming too popular? And feel the need to suppress it by confining it to the cells, behind bars so to speak?

This theory is innocent and should not spend one night in the cells!
Andrew K Fletcher

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!
Last edit: 8 years 11 months ago by Andrew.

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago #547 by Andrew
Dave:
With physics it is always a good idea to keep an eye on where the energy is going,
So just answer me this...98% of the water that goes up the tree is evaporated, so for every 100kg of water going up the tree at the most 2kg of water comes back down.

lifting 100kg of water 100m takes 10 000J dropping 3kg of water and sugar 100m releases 300J

where does the other 9700J come from?

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago - 8 years 11 months ago #548 by Andrew

Rosy:
quote:But to hide this thread from the view of people who are interested in physics and fluid dynamics is nothing short of censorship at best!
...and *that* is nothing short of paranoia at best.
It is a slightly odd feature of this site that it doesn't have a more general "plants" section but no-one doubts that your results physically occurred in your tube experiments, that the weight of the solution is causing the flow.
Anyone interested in how plants work will be interested in cells too, and will be looking at that part of the website too.
If you're that worried you could always post a new thread solely about the physics of your demos... maybe even with a little more explanation of how your ideas accord with things like the principle of conservation of energy (unless you're ruling that out too? I haven't worked that out).
You could even explain the principles by which (on about page one) you reckon you can get water at the top of your loop given that the water in it must be a negative pressure.


you don't have to be a genius to see that the cells forum is hardly visited by anyone, whereas the general science section is visited by most of the people who use the forum. Nevertheless I thank you for seeing the logic in the experiments and for not doubting their validity as viable repeatable experiments.
Andrew

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!
Last edit: 8 years 11 months ago by Andrew.

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago #549 by Andrew
@ Dave
The beauty of this simple experiment is that it shows circulation of fluids through conduits. Inside the dead tree that is still lifting water and evaporating it from the leaves, all we have is the knowledge that circulation must be taking place because the leaves are still transpiring moisture and that has to have come from the soil!

If only 1 gram of denser saline solution was returned in either a xylem or a phloem, this circulation would effortlessly lift / circulate many thousands of times its own volume, providing the tree with ample water to continue its evaporation. However, when the tree has been killed, the production of sugars will come to an end eventually and the minerals will find their way down to the lower part of the tree, ending the circulation at the end of the three week period, leaving only heat generated density changes to continue.

The cohesion theory needs to show this erroneous one-way lift of water. My theory requires the water to circulate. If you could set up the experiment you would see how important this is.

1 gram triggers this flow, never mind 2kgs.

Yesterday evening at 11.25pm, I set up an experiment with a 4 metre length of tube, open at both ends and filled with boiled water. At the time I am posting this, no cavitation has occurred, meaning that the water inside the tube requires only that the tubes be held in a vertical position, as they would predominantly be if they were inside a tree. This alone raises a serious question about your energy analogy.

So unless you are referring to the 10 000J as the suns energy, it does not relate to the experiments. 1 gram can cause many thousands of times its own volume to circulate vertically, and this will inevitably cause horizontal or diagonal circulation, depending on the route with the least resistance.

All that is needed is to show how the water circulates. Note the word circulates, as it is important. The term lift relates to your current line of thinking.

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago #550 by Andrew
Dave:
You are right you can cause lots of water to circulate without using much saline in your experiment, this is because you are not increasing the average height of water in the system - the energy required to lift the water on the up side is exactly the same as the energy released dropping the water on the down side. You are just moving it from one bottle at the bottom to the other. This means that all the weight of the saline has to do is overcome friction.

However a tree is not circulating at least 98% of the water!!!

98% of the water going up the xylem leaves from the leaves (you quoted this figure several pages ago) it isn't coming back down so the energy to lift it up is not released by water going down the tree.

So where is this 97J/kg coming from in your model?

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.

More
8 years 11 months ago #551 by Andrew
Reply #92 on: 10/05/2005 17:29:02 »
I have tried to convince you that the diameter or even the number of upward flowing water beeds does not equate to the volume of water or the diameter of tube in the return flow.

I have stated before, that you can have a larger bore tube on one side of the loop and a smaller bore tube on the other side, the balance is equal and the water is held in suspension.

I have tested this using a twin tube on one side and a single tube on the other, at 3 metres height. The balance on both sides is equal with no net flow either way. Only when a tiny amount of salt solution is added to the single tube side, or for that matter the double tube side does the circulation begin.

At the top of the tree the bore sizes change as the branches taper of to twigs, meaning that the return flow will inevitably be in a smaller tube to start with. As the water evaporates from the fine bore tubes, it is left with the return flow being directed down tubes of a similar size, or if that pathway cause back pressure, the flow will find a new route, causing more tubes to form.

So if you can picture a large volume of water being drawn through smaller tubes and that this reduced but denser volume flowing down through the smaller tube is sufficient to generate the pull of higher volumes of less dense solution in larger or even multiple tubes rising up, it simply does not require the energy input you are presuming it needs to flow. All I keep asking is that you repeat the experiments, or let me repeat the experiments and you will see exactly what I am talking about.

Hand the experiment over to the people at your homepage and ask them to form an opinion about whether this is relevant to plants and trees. I have not yet failed to convince all that have witnessed the experiments.

You also mention about the heights that fluids have to continuously attain, if I am not mistaken by your post. There is another force at play in this experiment, and that is the increased head of water generated in the rising side of the tube. The Brixham experiment dos not exactly reflect the fact that all of the multi-conduits inside a trees structure are inside one big conduit, and the roots are not exactly open as my tubes are.
Enclosing my experiment inside a tube filled with water would produce a net increase in the head of water, showing how trees can grow higher than the original water levels. It also shows to perfection how dew exudes from grass in the morning and how water exudes from a cut stem, previously believed to be some mystical force generated by the roots, known as root pressure.

Gravity, Learn to live with it, because you can't live without it!

Please Log in or Create an account to join the conversation.